Vintage Baseball: Then and Now – A complete guide to the great game.
How to Watch a Game – including how to dress, when (and what) to yell.
The Baseball Guide for 1871: Rules and Regulations of the Game – Major League baseball was born in 1871. As far as we know, ours is the only complete copy of the 1871 rules online!
THE BASE-BALL GUIDE
RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE GAME OF
B A S E - B A L L,
AS ADOPTED AT THE CONVENTION OF NOVEMBER 30th, 1870 AND RE-ADOPTED AND AMENDED BY THE AMATEUR AND PROFESSIONAL NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, MARCH 16TH AND 17TH, 1871.
RULE I — THE BALL, BAT, AND BASES.
Section 1. The ball must weigh not less than five nor more than five and one-quarter ounces avoirdupois. It must measure nine and one-quarter inches in circumference. It must be composed of India rubber and yarn, and covered with leather. The quantity of rubber used in the ball shall be one ounce - no more less.
The amendment to this rule consists of reducing the size of the ball by a quarter of an inch, and in limiting the rubber in it to one ounce. This makes the ball lively enough for all purposes good batting.
Section 2. In the first and third games of a series, the ball shall be furnished by the challenging club, and in the second game by the challenged club. But when "single" games are played only, the ball shall be furnished by the challenging club. In all cases it shall become the property of the winning club as a trophy of victory.
This rule leaves it optional with clubs to play double games or single.
Section 3. The bat must be round, and must not exceed two and a half inches in diameter in the thickest part. It must be made of wood, and shall not exceed forty-two inches in length.
The bat must be made of wood only, and no other material can be legitimately used in its composition. Cane, however, being a species of wood, can form a component part of a bat. The best bat in the market this season, is that known as the "Red Stocking" brand, modeled [sic] after a bat used by George Wright.
Section 4. The bases must be four in number, placed at equal distances from each other, and securely fastened upon each corner of a square whose sides are respectively thirty yards. The bases must be so constructed and placed as to be distinctly seen by the umpire, and must cover a space equal to one square foot of surface. The first, second, and third bases shall be canvas bags, painted white, and filled with some soft material; the home base and pitcher's points to be each marked by a flat plate, painted white.
The home base, it should be remembered, has to be the same size as the other bases, that is, it must cover one foot square of surface. It should consist of a flat, square plate of wrought iron, — cast iron is apt to break with the blow of a bat—and should be laid down with one corner pointing towards the pitcher, so its to give him the greatest width of the base to pitch over. The pitcher's points must be laid down so as not to extend beyond the lines of his position.
Section 5. The base from which the ball is struck shall be designated the home base, and must be directly opposite to the second base; the first base must always be that upon the right hand, and the third base that upon the left hand side of the striker, when occupying his position at the home base. And in all match games, a line connecting the home and first base, and the home and third base, as also the line of the striker's and pitcher's positions, shall be marked by the use of chalk, or other suitable material, so as to be distinctly seen by the umpire. The base bag shall be considered the base, and not the past to which it is or should be fastened.
The captain of the nine on whose ground a game is played, should see to it that the chalk lines from the home-base to the foul-ball posts are laid down. Each club should have its own set of foul-ball colors, and always fly them on their own ground.
Section 6. The line of the home-base shall extend three feet on each side of the base, and it shall be drawn parallel to a line extending from first to third base.
This is a new section simply defining the home-base line.
RULE II. — THE PITCHING DEPARTMENT.
Section 1. The pitcher's position shall be designated by two lines, two yards in length, drawn at right angles to the line from home to the second base, having their centres [sic] upon that line at two fixed iron plates, placed at points fifteen and seventeen yards distant from the home base. The pitcher, when commencing to deliver the ball to the bat, must stand within these lines, and must remain within them until the ball has left his hand.
The change in this section consists in leaving out the words referring to the delivery of the ball, which are inserted in another section.
Section 2. Should the pitcher repeatedly fail to deliver to the striker fair balls, from any cause, the umpire must call one ball; and if the pitcher persists in such action, two and three balls. When three balls shall have been called, the striker shall take the first base without being put out; but no base runner shall take a base on third called balls unless he is obliged to vacate the base he occupies. No ball shall be called on the first ball pitched, and not until the ball has passed the home base. With this exception, all unfair balls must be called in the order of their delivery.
The change in this section requires the umpire to call all unfair balls in the order of their delivery, which means in succession, if they are so delivered.
Section 3. All balls pitched over the home base, and not lower than the knee, nor higher than the shoulder of the striker, shall be considered as fair balls.
This section defines fair balls, and such balls cannot be called unless they are not sent in "low" or "high", as called for by the striker.
Section 4. All balls pitched over the striker's head, or on the ground in front of the home base, or pitched to the side opposite to that which the batsman strikes from, or which hit the striker while he is standing in his proper position, shall be considered unfair balls, and must be called in the order of their delivery.
Every ball described in this section, must be called by the umpire in the order of their delivery, except in the case of the first ball pitched to each striker.
Section 5. All balls thrown or jerked to the bat, or which are not delivered with a straight arm swinging perpendicularly to the side of the pitcher's body, shall be regarded as foully delivered balls, and all such balls shall be called, and bases shall be taken on them, as in the case of unfair balls, and in the order of their delivery. If the pitcher persists in delivering such balls, the umpire, after warning him of the penalty, shall declare the game forfeited by a score of 9 to 0. No such forfeit, however, shall be declared unless three men shall have been given their first base in one inning on such called balls.
This is an important amendment to the rules. Prior to the change, pitchers could balk continually, either by a false delivery, or by throwing; and the umpire could legally inflict no penalty, that of giving bases or balks being in reality none at all, as the striker could not take a base. Now a pitcher can be punished for unfair delivery by a forfeiture of the game.
Section 6. Whenever the pitcher makes any motion to deliver the ball to the bat, he shall so deliver it, and he must not have either foot outside the lines of his position, either when commencing to deliver the ball or at the time of its delivery; and if he fail in any of these particulars, then it shall be declared a balk.
The penalty for balks of this kind is simply that of giving players running the bases, one base for each balk.
Section 5 (sic). No player shall be put out on any hit ball on which a balk or a ball has been called; and neither shall a strike or a foul ball be called, or a base run on such a hit ball. But bases can be run on called balls not hit, and players can be put out on called balls thrown to bases; and any player given a base on called balls, shall be privileged to run all bases he can make beyond the base given him.
If the batsman, almost simultaneously with the umpire's call of "one ball" or "two balls," hits the called ball, and it be caught on the fly, it is not out, and under similar circumstances, if a player attempts to run a base, he must return to the base he left. If a player desires to attempt to run on a balked, or a called ball, not hit, he can do so, but he cannot attempt such a run on a hit balked or called ball. It should also be borne in mind, that if the striker hit a balked or called ball foul, the umpire is not to call foul, as the striker cannot legitimately hit a ball foul, unless he strikes at a fair ball. The difference in this case between the act of a player running a base on his own risk, and that or taking a base, as provided in a special rule, should be remembered in connection with a correct interpretation of the rule.
RULE III — THE BATTING DEPARTMENT.
Section 1. The striker when in the act of striking at the ball, must stand astride the line of the home-base, and distant not less than one foot from the home base, and when striking at the ball he may take a forward step, provided such step does not take both his feet forward of the line of the home base. The penalty for an infringement of this rule shall be the calling of "foul strike," and when three such strikes have been called, the striker shall be declared out. If a ball on which such a strike is called be hit and caught, either fair or foul, the striker shall be declared out. No base shall be run on any such called strike. But any player, running the bases, shall be allowed to return to the base he has left, without being put out. As soon us the striker has struck a fair ball, he shall be considered "a player running the bases."
The change in this section consists of adding a provision for taking a forward step.
Section 2. The striker shall be privileged to call for either a high or low ball, in which case, the pitcher must deliver the ball to the bat as required. The ball shall be considered a high ball if pitched between the height of the waist and the shoulder of the striker; and it shall be considered a low ball if pitched between the height of the knee and the waist.
This is the most important change made in the rules. It gives the striker the privilege of calling for a high or a low ball, and defines what those balls are.
Section 3. Players must strike in regular rotation, and, after the first innings is played, the turn commences with the player who stands on the list next to the one who was the third player out. Any player failing to take his turn at the bat after the umpire has called for the striker, unless by reason of illness, or injury, or by consent of the captains of the contesting nines, shall be declared out.
The object of putting a man out for not taking a turn at the bat is obvious to any close observer of the workings of a rule without any such clause. Suppose two nines are playing an important contest, and in one of the nines there is a poor batter. Now, without the clause in question in the rule, nothing would be easier than for the nines having the weak batsman to send him off the ground for a brief period, and replace him at the bat with a skillful batsman[.] It is to prevent a trick of this kind that the rule was amended.
Section 4. Should the striker refuse to strike at balls pitched over the home base and within the specified reach of the bat, the umpire shall call "one strike," and if the striker persists in such action, two and three strikes. When three strikes are called, and the ball be caught, either before touching the ground or upon the first bound, the striker shall be declared out, provided the balls struck at are not those on which balls or balks have been called. If three balls are struck at and missed, and the last one is not caught, either flying or upon the first bound, the striker (or the player running for him) must attempt to make his run, and, in such case, he can be put out on the bases in the same manner as if he had struck a fair ball. No strike shall be called upon the first bail delivered, except the ball be struck at; and neither shall any strike be called when the bell is struck at for the purpose of willfully striking out.
This rule is now about as near perfect as it can be made, and it is so plain as to need no explanation.
Section 5. The striker is out if a foul ball is caught, either before touching the ground or upon the first bound; or if a fair ball is struck, and the ball be held before touching the ground; or if a fair ball is struck, and the ball be held by an adversary on first base, before the striker touches that base; or if a fair ball be caught from the hands or person of a player before having touched the ground; or if a foul ball be similarly caught after touching the ground but once. No fair or foul ball, if caught from any other object than the person of a player, even before touching the ground, shall put a player out.
The striker can be put out by any fair ball caught from the hands or person of a player before touching the ground, or by a foul ball similarly caught, after touching the ground but once; but no ball, fair or foul, caught from a tree, a fence, or house, or in fact from any other object than the person of a player, even before touching the ground, can put a player out.
RULE IV. — RUNNING THE BASES.
Section 1. Players must take their bases in the order of striking; and when a fair ball is struck, and not caught flying, the first base must be vacated, as also the second and third bases, if they are occupied at the same time. Players may be put out on any base, under these circumstances, in the same manner as when running to the first base; but the moment the ball is caught, or the player running to first base is put out, other players running bases shall cease to be forced to vacate their bases, and may return to them. No base runner shall be forced to vacate a base, unless as provided in this section.
This rule prohibits any base player from forcing a predecessor to vacate a base unless he is obliged to do so by the rules. That is, if a player be on the first base, and one on the second, and the latter seeing a chance to make his third base, tries to make it, but finds it necessary to return, the other base runner in the meanwhile having reached his second, the rule now gives the second base to the player failing to reach the third, and obliges the player on the second to return to his first. In fact, a base runner is now entitled to return to the base he leaves — of course, at the risk of being put out between bases — until he touches the next base; or, in other words, he cannot be forced off the base by the player succeeding him, unless the latter himself is forced to vacate his base by the rules of the game.
Section 2. No player shall be allowed a substitute in running the bases, except for illness or injury, unless by a special consent of the captain of the opposing nine.
The words in this section were previously embodied in the first.
Section 3. Any player running the bases is out, if, at any time, he is touched by the ball, while in play, in the hands of an adversary, without some part of his person being on the base, except as provided in section 9 of Rule Fourth. And should a fielder, while in the act of touching a base runner while off a base, have the ball knocked out of his hand by the base runner, the latter shall be declared out.
The amendment to this rule consists in the power given the umpire to decide a base runner out who is touched by a ball in the hands of a fielder, even if the ball be dropped in the collision which generally occurs.
Section 4. No run or base can be made upon a final ball. Such a ball shall be considered dead, and not in play, until it shall first have been settled in the hands of the pitcher, in any part of the field he may happen to be. In such cases, players running bases shall return to them, and may be put out in so returning, in the same manner as when running to first base. Neither can a run or base be made when a fair ball has been caught without having touched the ground; but such a ball shall be considered alive and in play. In such cases, also, players running bases shall return to them, and may be put out in so returning, in the same manner as when running to first base; but players, when balls are so caught, may run their bases immediately after the ball has been momentarily settled in the hands of the player catching it.
The player running the bases on a foul ball must return to the base he left when the ball was struck, and remain upon it until the ball is "settled" in the hands of the pitcher, after which he can leave his base, but not until then. In the case of fair balls taken on the fly, a player running his bases when the ball is struck, must return to the base he left, and touch it, and wait on it until the ball is settled in the hands of the fielder catching it; after which he can again run for the next base without waiting for the ball to go to the pitcher; but in the case of foul balls the base runner must stand on his base until the ball is settled in the hands of the pitcher.
Section 5. A player running the bases shall, after touching the home base be entitled to score one run; but if a fair ball be struck when two hands are already out, no player running home at the time the ball is struck, can make a run to count in the score of the game, if the striker, or player running the bases, is put out before touching the first base.
This rule is now clear to the plainest understanding. The rule works in this way: If there be a player at first base, and one man is out, and also another at third base, ready to run home, and a fair ball be struck to short stop, for instance, and that player passes it to second base, thereby forcing the player out running from first to second, and the second baseman passes the ball to first base and puts the striker out, the player who ran home from third, and touched home before the third hand was put out, scores his run, simply from the fact that two hands were not out when the ball was struck on which he ran home.
Section 6. Players running base must touch them, and, so far as is possible, keep upon the direct line between them, and must touch them in the following order — first, second, third, and home, and if returning, must reverse this order; and should any player run three feet out of this line, for the purpose of avoiding the ball in the hands of an adversary, he shall be declared out; or if he fail to touch each base he runs to, he shall be declared out, unless he return to such base before the ball be held on it.
A player running his bases can only be decided out by the umpire for running out of the line of the bases when he does so to avoid the ball. If he does so to avoid interfering with a fielder, he does not infringe the rule. If he fails to touch a base he must return to it, and must be touched with the ball before he does return, in order to put him out.
Section 7. In the case of a fair fly — ball being hit., the player running the bases shall not be entitled to any base touched after the ball has been hit, and prior to the catch being made.
This is a new section and explains itself.
Section 8. When a balk is made by the pitcher, every player running the bases must take one base without being put out.
The striker cannot take a base on a balked ball.
Section 9. If the player is prevented from making a base by the intentional obstruction of an adversary, he shall be entitled to that base, and shall not be put out. Any obstruction that could readily have been avoided shall be considered as intentional.
The word intentional in this section refers to actions which might have been avoided. Thus, if a fielder happens to be standing on the line of a base to catch a falling ball, the player has no right to run up against him because he is between him and the base, for he can run a foot or two to one side, and not thereby be prevented from reaching his base by the effort of the fielder to catch the ball. So in regard to a base player taking a ball from a fielder, he having no right to stand between the player and the base when the ball could be equally well taken by standing out of the way of his adversary. In these instances the obstruction must be regarded as intentional, from the fact that it might readily be avoided.
Section 10. Should a player running the bases touch and overrun his first base, he shall be privileged to return at once to the base, without being put out, provided he does not attempt to make his second base.
This is a new rule, and it should be extended so as to include all the bases, because it is advisable that all unnecessary risks of injury to players should be avoided.
RULE V. — THE GAME.
Section 1. The game shall consist of nine innings to each side, when, should the number of runs be equal, the play shall be continued until a majority of runs, upon an equal number of innings, shall be declared, which shall conclude the game; unless in such cases it be mutually agreed upon by the captains of the two nines to consider the game as drawn. But in case of no such agreement, the parties refusing to play, no matter from what cause, shall forfeit the ball, and the game thus forfeited shall be recorded as a won game by a score of nine runs to none. All innings must be concluded at the time the third hand is put out.
It will be seen by the above section, that clubs now have the power to draw a game at the close of the ninth innings, provided the score be equal, and both parties consent, but not otherwise. For instance, suppose nine A have scored twenty runs at the close of their ninth innings, and nine B the same, and the former desire to consider it a drawn game, but the latter refuse and insist on playing the game until one or the other party exceed the score; If the A nine refuse to continue it, they forfeit the ball. It requires the consent of both parties to make such a contest a drawn game. The rule inflicts the penalty of forfeiture by a score of 9 to 0 if either side refuse to continue a game after commencing it, no matter for what cause.
Section 2. In playing all matches, nine players from each club shall constitute a full field; and they must be members of the club which they represent. They also must not have been members of any other club, in out of the National Amateur Association — college-club nines, composed of actual students, excepted, — for sixty days immediately prior to the match. Positions of players and choice of innings shall be determined by captains previously appointed for that purpose by the respective clubs. Every player taking part in the regular match game, no matter what number of innings are played, shall be, in the meaning of this section of the rules, considered a member of the club he plays with.
In view of the fact that the former National Association has been replaced by the two existing National Associations, clubs are to be considered as Association clubs only while members of one or other of the two associations in question, viz.: the Amateur or Professional. The rule ought to include every club as an Association club which is enrolled in any existing State or Sectional Base Ball Association. In regard to college-club nines, college clubs are debarred from playing members of other clubs in their nines, unless they are actual students in the college the club is attached to.
Section 3. The nine shall be privileged to take any positions in the field their captain may choose to assign them.
This is a new section, and it was designed to make clear a point regarded as doubtful by some country clubs.
Section 4. No ball shall be claimed or delivered (except as otherwise provided in these rules) unless it be won in a regular match game; and no match game shall be considered regular if any of the rules of the game be violated by either of the contesting clubs, whether by mutual consent or otherwise.
All games are now "regular" if they are played in strict accordance with the new rules. With amateur clubs the rule of a match is best two out of three; with professional clubs the rule is best three out of five.
Section 5. No person who shall be in arrears to any other club than the one he plays with, or who shall at any time during the year the match is played in, have been constitutionally expelled from another club for dishonorable conduct, shall be competent to take part in any match game; and no player not in the nine taking their positions on the field in the third innings of the game, shall be substituted for a player in the nine, except for reason of illness or injury.
This is the section which prohibits expelled players from taking part in a game.
Section 6. No match game shall be commenced when rain is falling; and neither shall play in any such game be continued after rain has fallen for five minutes.
The umpire should always suspend the game whenever rain begins to fall in sufficient quantity to wet the ball. In fact, a game cannot legally continue five minutes after rain has fallen.
Section 7. Whenever a match shall have been determined upon between two clubs, play shall be called at the exact hour appointed; and should either party fail to produce their players within thirty minutes thereafter, the party so failing shall admit a defeat, and shall forfeit the ball to the club having their nine players on the ground ready to play, and the game, so forfeited, shall be considered as won, and so counted in the list of matches; and the winning club shall be entitled to a score of nine runs to none for any game so forfeited. Should the delinquent climb fail to play on account of the recent death of one of its active members, no such forfeit shall be declared.
The death of an active member of a club is the only legal excuse a club can offer for postponing a game.
Section 8. Every match made shall be decided by the winning of two games out of three, unless a single game shall be mutually agreed upon by the contesting clubs, in which case the ball shall be furnished by the challenging club. All matches shall terminate before the end of the season; and no agreements between clubs shall be considered binding unless made in writing.
This section applies only to the clubs of the Amateur Association, except the clause referring to the close of the season and to agreements in writing.
Section 9. Under no circumstances shall a game be considered as played, or a ball be claimed or delivered as the trophy of victory, unless five innings on each side shall have been played to a close. And should darkness or rain intervene before the third hand is put out in the closing part of the fifth innings of a game, the umpire shall declare "no game" concluded.
This is a new section, intended to define clearly what constitutes a game.
Section 10. No person who shall be in arrears to any other club than the one he plays with, or who shall at any time receive compensation for his services as a player, shall be competent to play in any match. All players who play baseball for place, emolument or money, shall be regarded as professional players; and no professional player shall take part in any match game; and any club giving any compensation to a player, or having to their knowledge a player in their nine playing in a match for compensation, shall be debarred from membership in this Association.
This rule applies exclusively to the Amateur Association, and is the only section added to the rules which were adopted by the Amateur clubs at their March convention.
RULE VI. — MISCELLANEOUS.
Section 1. If an adversary stops the ball with his hat or cap, or if a ball be stopped in any way by person or persons not engaged in the game, no player can be put out unless the ball shall first have been settled in the hands of the pitcher, while he stands within the line of his position.
It will be seen that whether the ball be handled by an outsider, or whether it be "stopped" in "anyway" by an outside crowd, it cannot be used to put a player out until it has first been held by the pitcher while standing within the lines of his position.
Section 2. Any player who shall intentionally prevent an adversary from catching or fielding the ball, shall be declared out; or if any player be prevented from making a base by the intentional obstruction of an adversary, he shall be entitled to that base, and shall not be declared out, even if touched with the ball.
The style of play which the above section is designed to prohibit, should be promptly rebuked by umpires whenever practiced [sic]. It was a noteworthy feature of several games last season. In three or four instances we saw a player, while making his first base, run up against the base player when the latter was not at all in his way, purposely to cause the player to drop the ball. In every such instance as this the umpire ought to promptly give the offender out. The word "intentionally," in these rules, refers to actions which might have been avoided. Thus, if a fielder happens to be standing on the line of a base to catch a falling ball, the player has no right to run up against him because he is between him and the base, for he can run a foot or two to one side, and not thereby be prevented from reaching his base by the effort of the fielder to catch the ball. So in regard to a base player taking a ball from a fielder, he having no right to stand between the player and the base when the ball could be equally well taken by standing out of the way of his adversary. In these instances the obstruction should be regarded as intentional, from the fact that it might readily have been avoided.
Section 3. If the ball, from the stroke of a bat, first touches the ground, the person of a player, or any other object, behind the line of range of home and the first base, or home and the third base, it shall be termed foul, and must be so declared by the umpire, unasked. If the ball first touches the ground, the person of a player, or any other object, either upon or in front of the line of range of those bases, it shall be considered fair. If the ball be dropped from the hands of a player, it shall be considered a muffed ball.
This section simply defines what are "foul" balls and what "fair." A ball may touch a player standing clearly on foul ball ground, and yet first touch the ground "fair," but it will nevertheless be a foul ball, simply from its first touching the player "foul."
Section 4. Clubs may adopt such rules respecting balls knocked beyond or outside of the bounds of the field as the circumstances of the ground may demand; and these rules shall govern all matches played upon the ground, provided that they are distinctly made known to the umpire previous to the commencement of the game, but not otherwise.
If a club fails to notify an umpire of any special rules of a ground before "play" is called, then no such special rules can be enforced. Umpires and captains of nines should always ask the occupants of the ground whether any special rules exist; and this should be done before commencing play.
Section 5. No fence shall be erected within ninety feet back of the home base of a ball field, except such fence marks the boundary line of the grounds on which the field is laid. And in case such fence should be located within ninety feet of the home base, then each ball passing the catcher and touching the fence shall give the base runner one base.
This rule of giving a base on passed balls touching a fence less than ninety feet from home base, applies only when the fence in question is not on the boundary line of the ground. When it is, the rule does not apply.
Section 6. After the first or second game of a regular series between two clubs shall have been played, either of the contesting clubs shall be privileged to claim a forfeited ball from the club failing to play — after being duly challenged — the return or third game, before the expiration of sixty days from the date of the previous match.
This is a new section, and it prevents clubs backing out of matches which have been duly commenced.
RULE VII. — DUTIES OF THE UMPIRE.
Section I. The umpire shall take care that the regulations respecting the balls, bats, bases, and the pitcher's and striker's positions are strictly observed, and he shall require the challenging club to furnish a ball on which the size, weight, and the name of the manufacturer shall be stamped. He shall be the sole judge of fair and unfair play, and shall determine all disputes and differences which may occur during the game, and there shall be no appeal from his decision, except through the Judiciary Committee of the National Association of Amateur Base-Ball Players, or that of the Professional Association, according as the clubs may belong to one or the other. He shall take special care to declare all foul balls and balks immediately upon their occurrence [sic], in a distinct and audible manner. He shall in every instance, before leaving the ground, declare the winning club, and shall record his decision in the books of the scorers. The Umpire shall also require that the game be recorded by a scorer for each of the contesting clubs. In all matches, the umpire shall be selected by the captains of the respective sides, and shall perform all the duties above enumerated. No game, however, shall be forfeited from the failure of the Umpire to record his decision or properly discharge his duties.
The Umpire, it should be remembered, is the sole judge of fair and unfair play, and the new rule governing his duties plainly states that there shall be no appeal from his decisions except through the medium of the appropriate Judiciary Committee. If an umpire is found to err in misinterpreting the rules — not when he simply commits an error of judgment — the captain of a nine can call his attention to the fact. But if the umpire persists in his error, there is no power of redress for either nines, except by an appeal.
Section 2. The Umpire in any match shall determine when play shall be suspended; and, if the game can not be fairly concluded, it shall be decided by the last equal innings played; unless one nine shall have completed their innings, and the other nine shall have exceeded the score of their opponents in their uncompleted inning, in which case the nine having the highest score shall be declared the winners. Also in all games terminating similarly, the total score obtained shall be recorded as the score of the game[.]
This section is the same as before. It prevents games being willfully [sic] played into the dark. This rule allows the club credit of scoring all the runs they need in an incomplete [sic] inning of a game as the total score, provided the other side have played their part of the innings.
Section 3. When the Umpire calls "play," the game must at once be proceeded with; and the party failing to take their appointed position in the game within five minutes thereafter shall forfeit the game. All such forfeited games shall be recorded as won by a score of nine runs to none, and the game so won shall be placed to the credit of the nine ready to continue the game. When the umpire calls "time," play shall be suspended until he calls "play" again, and during the interim no player shall be put out, or base run, or ball called.
This rule simply applies a score of 9 to 0 to all games forfeited as described in the rule. Until the Umpire calls "play," the ball is dead and no player can be put out or base run.
Section 4. When the Umpire "calls" a game, it shall end; but when he merely suspends play for any stated period, it may be resumed at the point at which it was suspended, provided such suspension does not extend beyond the day of the match.
No game commenced on any specified day, can be resumed on any other day. If the play be interrupted, it must be resumed — if resumed at all — the day the interruption occurred.
Section 5. No decision given by the Umpire shall be reversed, except for a palpable error in interpreting the rules, nor shall any decision be reversed upon the testimony of any player; and neither shall the Umpire be guided in his decision by any such testimony. The captains of each nine shall alone be allowed to appeal for a reversal of the decision of the Umpire.
This prevents the reversal of decisions except for palpable errors in interpreting the rules.
Section 6. No person engaged in a match, either as umpire, scorer, or player, shall be either directly or indirectly interested in any bet upon the game. Nor shall any person be permitted to act as umpire or scorer in any match, unless he shall be a member of a club belonging to one or other of the two existing National Associations, nor if he receive compensation in money for his services as umpire. Neither shall the umpire or scorer be changed during a match, unless with the consent of both parties, except for reason of illness or injury, or for a violation of the above rules.
The amendment to the rule is that of prohibiting the umpire from receiving compensation for services.
Section 7. Whenever a pitched ball touches the Umpire, or is accidentally stopped by him, it shall be considered dead and not in play until again settled in the hands of the pitcher while an his position, and no such dead ball shall put a player out, nor shall any base be run, or run scored on such a ball.
This is a new section, and it simply makes a ball dead which touches the Umpire when pitched to the batsman.
Section 8. No person shall be permitted to approach or to speak with the Umpire, or in any manner to interrupt or interfere during the progress of the game, unless by special request of the Umpire; any club willfully [sic] infringing any rule of the game, shall, after trial by the competent Judiciary Committee, be liable, for the first offense, to the penalty of suspension from membership of the National Association, of which the club is a member, for any period the said Committee may direct, not exceeding one year; and expulsion from such membership for the second offense. All games in which any of the rules of the Association are infringed, shall also be considered forfeited games, and shall be recorded as games won by a score of nine runs to none, and against the club infringing the rules.